With its 5 million specimens, Botany can be considered one of the main international centres of conservation and research in the field of botany.
The largest collection (Central Herbarium), founded in 1842 and continuously growing, includes over 4.5 million samples from all over the world, in particular from Europe and the Mediterranean basin.
In addition, Botany includes some important historical collections, preserved in their original layout: from the sixteenth century Merini and Cesalpino Herbaria to the more recent Pichi Sermolli Herbarium (20th century).
But the Botanical collections is not just herbaria. It also contains other remarkable collections, both in support of those of the dried plants (ancillary collections: seeds, fruits, wood species, galls), and of a more artistic sphere, such as that of botanical models and still life paintings, and the precious legacies of the Lorraine Imperial and Royal Museum of Physics and Natural History. The Section is completed by a book collection of over 2,000 volumes.