Among the lithological samples we find specimens belonging to ancient geo-mineralogical collections such as the Targioni Tozzetti, where various building materials such as limestones, sandstones and basalts are represented. More or less sporadic acquisitions by scholars and enthusiasts flank the proper collections: an example is the collection of Italian rocks acquired by the Palumbo company in Rome in 1940 and the older Kranz collection from Bonn. The latter includes 500 specimens of rocks of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary origin.
Among the most aesthetically pleasing lithological specimens are the decoration materials: marble, hard stones and granites. Marbles in tiles, in globes or in glazed slices, with colorful and gaudy colors, limestone with dendritic spots simulating arborescences or "Stone of ruins", that is village stone, which appear as paintings of lunar landscapes or as the name suggests city ruins or temples.